Companies vary from large multi-nationals, small or medium sized organisations, Biotechnology, Medical Device, Generics or Niche companies to Clinical Research Organisations (CROs). CROs are Global organisations, service providers that undertake outsourced clinical trials for pharma companies to help get a compound on to the market. Their work includes specialist Phase I services, Pharmacokinetics/ Pharmacodynamics and Phase II –IV Services.
Typically, large pharmaceutical companies are structured in a 3-tier arrangement. At the top and generally in the country of origin is the Holdings Company: comprising Board Members, Senior Management, Legal, Corporate Affairs and Public Relations. Next comes the R & D company, again most often in the country of origin and comprising: Bench R & D (Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Kinetics) and Clinical R & D (Phases I, II, III and Regulatory). Finally, the Local Operating Company, often described as an ‘Affiliate’ and usually based in the country where the products are marketed, comprising: Marketing, Sales and Medical.